Advocacy: The T.R.A.I.N.E.R. Model

  • David D. Hof University of Nebraska at Kearney
  • Julie A. Dinsmore University of Nebraska at Kearney
  • Scott Barber University of Nebraska at Kearney
  • Ryan Suhr University of Nebraska at Kearney


The T.R.A.I.N.E.R. model described in this article engages counselors in social advocacy and professional advocacy concurrently, facilitates counselor connection and collaboration with diverse communities, and raises the awareness of the counseling profession in the general marketplace. The model assumes social and professional advocacy are complementary and outlines a process where use of each strengthens the other. An example of the model‟s application is offered with discussion regarding implications forits use.
How to Cite
Hof, D. D., Dinsmore, J. A., Barber, S., & Suhr, R. (2009). Advocacy: The T.R.A.I.N.E.R. Model. Journal for Social Action in Counseling & Psychology, 2(1), 15-28.